Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States

Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States

Published on Environmental Health Perspectives

Background: Growing evidence indicates that toxicity of fine particles (PM2.5) differs by chemical component. Exposure to components may differ by population.

Objectives: We investigated whether exposures to PM2.5 components differ by race/ethnicity, age, and socio-economic status (SES).

Methods: Long-term exposures (2000-2006) were estimated for 215 US census tracts for PM2.5 and 14 PM2.5 components. Population-weighted exposures were combined to generate overall estimated exposures by race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, employment, age, and earnings. Population characteristics for tracts with and without PM2.5 component monitors were compared.

Results: Larger disparities in estimated exposures were observed for components than for PM2.5 total mass. For race/ethnicity, whites generally had the lowest exposures. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher exposures than whites for 13 of the 14 components. Hispanics generally had the highest exposures (e.g., 152% higher than whites for chlorine, 94% higher for aluminum). Young persons (0-19yrs) had levels as high as or higher than other ages for all exposures except sulfate. Persons with lower SES had higher estimated exposures, with some exceptions. For example, a 10% increase in the proportion unemployed was associated with a 20.0% increase in vanadium and an 18.3% increase in elemental carbon. Census tracts with monitors had more non-Hispanic blacks, lower education and earnings, and higher unemployment and poverty than tracts without monitors.

Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES. If some components are more toxic than others, certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens. Demographics differed between populations covered and not covered by monitors.

feedly. feed your mind. http://www.feedly.com

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s